Cooling towers are used for reducing heat by cooling down the water stream to a lower temperature. FRP square cooling tower and FRP round cooling tower work similarly. The primary function of a cooling tower is to take heat from the water stream and rejects it to the air stream. The cooling is also partly caused by the evaporation of water. The transferred heat increases the air temperature, and humidity level and the air is discharged in the atmosphere. The cooled water is collected and pumped back to absorb more heat.
The cooling tower system is an effective way for heat rejection, but it is also responsible for using large volumes of potable water. It consumes nearly half of the total water usage of the building or site. Over a period of time, the cooling towers installed in large commercial buildings can consume significant volumes of potable water. It is essential that we manage water consumption in cooling towers to reduce its use and wastage.
We have created a guideline for the operators of HVAC&R and standalone cooling tower systems to help them manage the water consumption. The operators of the complex cooling tower system may have to opt for other ways to manage water consumption, considering several other factors.
Why is it essential to optimize cooling tower water consumption:
- To conserve water resources, reduce overall costs, save money, and reduce water wastage is beneficial for the company.
- Following rules and regulations of the place where the plant is situated is also necessary.
- To reduce the wastage of water is our environmental responsibility.
How to reduce cooling tower water consumption:
- The first thing that operators should do is to reduce the cooling load and improve the quality of tower control.
- If the cycles of concentration are well optimized, drift is minimized, and bleed volume is also at a minimum level, the water consumption can be reduced.
- Overflows can cause serious water waste and preventing any overflows is essential.
- Keeping the system well maintained with regular inspection of valves, sensors, and other equipment for leaks.
- Managing the water used for system cleaning
- Giving training on water conservation and practice the best management.
Managing tower water balance and consumption:
It is vital to address the water balance for optimizing water conservation in the cooling tower, even in a bottle cooling tower. Water losses by overflows, drift, bleed, evaporation, splash-out, and system leaks should be prevented. Some water outflows are controllable like bleed and evaporation, and they should be optimized. Uncontrolled water outflows like leaks, drift, overflows, etc., should be minimized.
Auditing the tower water balance:
The first step for optimizing the water efficiency of the system is to conduct a proper water audit. You can use a Cooling Tower Water Efficiency Calculator for calculating water efficiency accurately.
Manage the tower operation:
The main benefit of regularly monitoring the cooling tower is that any irregularities in water consumption can be identified as early as possible. Water meters should be placed practically on the make-up water line; it also has to be economically feasible. It helps in understanding the tower’s water consumption pattern effectively. On bleed lines, electromagnetic flow meters should be used. Tower monitoring should be done regularly, and the systems associated with it also should be kept well-maintained. The associated systems should be fine-tuned once in a while to ensure that they smoothly go along with the flow of operational load and perform well. The operators should also review the water as well as energy use and find the scope of any improvements. Even if you have installed a rectangular cooling tower, it should be managed correctly to ensure that the system rejects more heat and consumes less power and water.
Optimizing water management:
To ensure that the water treatment system is working effectively, emphasise on proper optimization required. Water filters should be regularly maintained and replaced. System’s performance improves with optimization of filtration systems, water treatment, and any treatment of make-up water. You should consider the following things at the time of optimizing water treatment systems.
Hire an experienced water treatment service provider who that conducts an assessment of cooling tower water consumption taking any unique operational parameters of the systems into account.
Find the best cooling tower company in India that has required a license and qualified and trained staff.
- You should notify the technicians that the system water efficiency is your priority.
- Essential parameters should be set and maintained to control scale, fouling, microbial, and corrosion.
- They should also be able to model the optimum cycles of concentration, and it should be controlled with automated conductivity.
- Bleed control should include locking capability to prevent bleed during and after biocide addition.
- Monitoring the quality of discharged water
- All the sections of the systems that are associated with water need regular exposure to treatment chemicals using automated control programming.
- Experts should examine microbiological samples and analyze them.
- Establish a protocol for fault reporting.
Opting for alternative water sources:
If you want to reduce consumption of potable water in your cooling tower, then using an alternative water source would be ideal. Bleed water and any water used in cleaning the system can be reused and recycled. It improves the overall water consumption of the facility.
There are a few sources to opt for, which mostly depend on the application and location of the tower.
Use the following alternative water source for cooling tower:
Condensate from air conditioning or refrigeration systems
- Recycled water
- River and lake water
Refurbishment and upgrades:
Timely replacement and upgrades play a crucial part in reducing the water consumption of older cooling water systems. It does reduce not only the water use but also improves the system’s performance. It is essential to check the existing systems and components that have been placed for a long time that either needs replacement or upgrade with advanced technology.
Keeping water consumption and wastage in cooling towers at a minimum level is essential. To ensure that the tower water is well managed, the first step would be to audit the tower water balance. You should also opt for optimizing water balance and if possible look for an alternative source of water. Timely replacement and upgrades are also necessary to reduce the water consumption of the cooling tower and improve its performance.