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The cooling tower is a vast structure that helps to remove the heat coming from the industry by cooling it and then releasing it into the atmosphere. To accomplish these, they use materials such as PVC plastic sheets to generate enormous surfaces for water to evaporate.
Refrigeration, air conditioning, and ventilation for industrial cooling towers are the most common uses. A cooling tower allows systems to operate in a cost-effective and energy-efficient manner. More than thousands of industrial plants require a lot of water to keep their operations cool. This is the reason why a cooling tower is required.
Many cooling towers work by condensing a tiny amount of water recycled through the device to remove heat from the water. When heated water and cold air are mixed, the latent heat of vaporization is released that allows the liquid to cool.
In a counterflow cooling tower, the water flow is opposite to the airflow direction. The hot water distribution basin feeds water into the fill from the top of the reactor.
There are mainly three types of cooling towers which include crossflow, counterflow, and hyperbolic. There are two types of cooling towers based on airflow: induced draught and static draught cooling towers.
Axial fans are more effective, while centrifugal fans remain smoother and can handle higher resistance air pressure. It gives around 80% efficiency compared to other types of the cooling tower.
Wet-bulb air temperature, the mass flow rate of water, the height of the tower, air velocity through the building, and various other factors affect the cooling tower effectiveness.
Cooling towers are primarily used to remove heat from power stations, petrochemical industries, oil refineries, natural gas processing plants, food processing plants, and other industrial facilities.
The natural draft cooling tower is a direct-contact cooling tower. It uses a heat exchanger to allow warm water from the plant to be cooled by having direct contact with clean air. Hot, drier air rises to the top of the tower while cold water collects at its base.
Cooling tower water has a pH of 7.0, which is neutral. Every rise in pH doubles the alkalinity of the water. Acidic compounds are those with pH values below 7.0. Acids with a lower pH have a more substantial effect.
Cooling systems are classified as air cooling systems and water cooling systems. The heat transmitted to the tower’s exterior parts is dissipated and carried away by a stream of air drawn from the atmosphere in this cooling system.
In actual life, the cooling tower efficiency is around 70% to 75%.
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